Service Delivery Models
To meet the needs of students with disabilities, City Schools provides a continuum of services and programs. The Individualized Education Program (IEP) team, which includes the parent(s), determines the appropriate specialized and/or related services that are required to meet the needs of the individual student in the least restrictive environment. A hard copy of the service delivery models is available upon request.
Consultation (Indirect) Services
- Provide the general educator with guidance from the special education teacher and/or related service provider on appropriate strategies for instruction, behavior management, data collection, observation, and feedback in the general education setting.
- Facilitate service delivery through ongoing communication between general and special educators and related service providers.
- Assistance in completing functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and developing a behavioral intervention plan (BIP) to address areas of concern.
Direct ServicesInside the general education setting:
Outside the general education setting:
- Direct special education instruction within the least restrictive environment of the general education classroom through co-teaching and collaborative instructional models.
- Direct support for individual students by the special education teacher, general educator and/or para-educator by making adaptations or modifications to the general education curriculum and assessments.
- Individualized or small group instruction to meet the academic and behavior needs of the student, either within the general education classroom or with pull-out resource services for specific skill development.
- Direct intensive or multi-sensory instruction utilizing specialized strategies and techniques in a small group, self-contained environment with an alternative curriculum when necessary.
- More specific skill training in remediation of academic skill deficits or in the social, emotional, and behavioral areas.
- Supports that address behavioral difficulties that interfere with the student's learning or the learning of other students.
- General Education Teacher
- Special Education Teacher
- Teacher of the Blind and Visually Impaired
- Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
- Speech-Language Pathologist
- Physical Therapist
- Occupational Therapist
- School Psychologist
- School Social Worker
- Assistive Technology Team
Special Education Services and ProgramsPrograms for Visually Impaired Students
- Students who have visual impairments which adversely affect their educational performance and restrict their ability to read and write standard print are able to work with specially trained teachers. Students who qualify for services include those who have a visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with correcting lenses, have a limited field of vision, or have a medically indicated expectation of deterioration. Services are provided by certified teachers of the visually impaired, who provide instruction and consultation with classroom teachers, mobility training and support with assistive technology and supplementary aides and services, so the students can participate in general education with their peers, to the maximum extent possible.
Programs for Hearing Impaired Students
Adapted Physical Education
- Students who have are deaf or have permanent or fluctuating hearing impairment which adversely affects educational performance, restricting ability to hear and communicate verbally, are able to work with specially trained teachers. Many of the students have hearing aids, cochlear implants or assistive devices. Instructional services are provided in self-contained classrooms or itinerantly by special educators and certified teachers of the hearing impaired, who provide instruction and consultation with classroom teachers, as well as training in sign language. The teachers of the hearing impaired work closely with audiologists, orientation and mobility specialists and other professionals to ensure that appropriate assistive technology and supplementary aides and services are in place so the students can participate in general education with their peers, to the maximum extent possible.
Services in the Natural Environment
- Adapted Physical Education (APE) is physical education that is modified or adapted to meet the individual needs of students who have gross motor developmental delays or impairments. The physical education teacher provides differentiated instruction in physical education as a direct service to meet the needs of each individual student in the least restrictive environment. This educational service is provided by a certified physical education teacher and/or an adapted physical education itinerant teacher and may be provided inside or outside the general physical education classroom, as indicated by each student’s IEP.
Parent and Infant Early Stimulation (PIES)
- Working with the Baltimore City Health Department and in collaboration with families, City Schools provides special instruction and related services in the home or at childcare centers, Head Start of pre-k. Instruction focuses on meeting goals described in the student's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
- The family focused PIES program takes place within a structured classroom environment. Parents attend with their children who are supported in developing play, communication, social and adaptive skills.
Services at Head Start
- Parents bring their child to their neighborhood school to receive services such as speech and language therapy
Services in Pre-kindergarten or Kindergarten
- Children who attend Head Start receive services at their program sites. Children with more intensive needs can receive transportation to attend a half-day program at Head Start and a half-day program at City Schools.
Promoting Engagement, Emotional Regulation and Social Skills (PEERS)
- City Schools students in general education pre-k or kindergarten programs receive special instruction or related services during the school day. IEP goals and objectives become part of daily classroom routines and instruction. Services are provided in or outside the regular classroom, in accordance with each child's IEP.
Discover with Me
- For students with developmental delays who have needs in the areas of attention, emotional regulation and social skills, PEERS uses routine-based instruction, targets social skills, PEERS uses routines-based instruction, targets social skills and provides multiple opportunities to learn with the senses. The program, which benefits from a partnership with the Johns Hopkins University, is fully aligned with the City Schools pre-k curriculum and includes children with and without IEPs
- Children with and without IEPs work together, learning in a rich environment with effective teaching strategies designed to help meet developmental milestones. The curriculum focuses on developmentally appropriate skills of order, concentration, coordination and independence.
Early Learning Environment
- This program, for young children with autism or related communication, social and behavioral needs, was designed in collaboration with Kennedy Krieger Institute's Center for Autism and Related Disorders and is now supported by a partnership with the Johns Hopkins University. Children with and without IEPs experience age- and grade-appropriate instruction based on routines and behavior, high levels of visual supports and opportunities to use the senses. The program is fully aligned with the City Schools curriculum
Early Therapeutic Environment
- Children with developmental delays and a need for more intensive special instruction receive that instruction within a grade-appropriate curriculum. The separate, highly structured, routines-based class incorporates learning through all the senses with multiple opportunities to practice skills.
Early Learning Environment - Autism (ELE-A)
- When a child's social, emotional or behavioral needs cannot be met in the general education setting, this program provides short- or long-term support. Instructional strategies within the grade-appropriate curriculum includes specialized class-wide behavior management, clear and consistent rules and routines, positive behavior supports, crisis intervention and therapeutic support from full-time clinical staff and behavior specialists
Early Learning Environment - Auditory/Oral
- This program offers a smaller separate class for young children with autism or related communication, social and behavioral needs. Routines- and behavioral-based instruction and high levels of visual supports are embedded throughout the day. Instruction, which is supported by a partnership with the Johns Hopkins University is fully aligned with the grade-appropriate City Schools curriculum
Preschool Adaptive Curriculum Environment (PACE)
- This full-day program provides a language-rich environment, where children experience an academic curriculum while concentrating on communication and thinking skills. Teachers are specialists working with hearing impaired children and make use of ear-level FM systems that help students develop speech, language and auditory skills.
- For children with global delays (including adaptive functioning), this separate class provides an intensive focus on communication and self-help skills, embedded in age-appropriate curriculum. Teaching strategies include routines-based instruction, high levels of visual support, scaffolding and multiple opportunities to practice skills.
Programs for Students Ages 6-21Services in Grades 1-12
Emotional Disability (ED) Program
- City Schools students in general education programs receive special instruction or related services during the school day. IEP goals and objectives become part of daily classroom routines and instruction. Services are provided in or outside the regular classroom, in accordance with each child's IEP.
Life Skills Program
- The ED program is designed to provide academic, behavioral, social and therapeutic supports to increase students' availability for learning by enhancing coping skills. Key features of the program include a small structured therapeutic learning environment with individualized behavioral supports including individual or group therapy by a school psychologist or social worker.
Program for Autistic Learners (PAL)
- The Life Skills program is designed to provide instructional support to students with a significant intellectual disability who have concurrent deficits in impairments in adaptive functioning. The instructional emphasis of the program is on the academic content areas with an integration of activities of daily living that are needed to support functioning in the home, school, community and at work.
Separate Public Day SchoolsWhen the severity or nature of students' disabilities affects their performance and academic success within their community-based school setting, placement in a separate public day school may be appropriate, as determined by an IEP team. City Schools' separate public day schools provide programming, facilities, and specialized staff to meet students' needs.Nonpublic SchoolsFor the limited number of students whose needs exceed the services and programs provided by City Schools, the Nonpublic office utilizes the nonpublic schools approved by the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE).The nature and severity of the student’s disability, which as a significant impact on education performance, may necessitate more intensive resources and may require a more therapeutic segregated setting in order for a student to receive an appropriate educational program.
- The PAL program is designed for students with an educational disability of Autism Spectrum Disorder with a significant cognitive and social skills delay. The program is designed to prepare students with Autism to be career ready, independent learners who are able to be self-sufficient, communicative and productive members of society.